Nobel Prize for Chemistry

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This directory is compiled and maintained by Carlo Nervi and Mauro Ravera.
Feedback cheerfully accepted.
Last updated (new! or updated!): 13 October 1999


* 1901
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (The Netherlands, 30.8.1852 - 1.3.1911)
Germany, Berlin University,
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions".
* 1902
Hermann Emil Fischer (Germany, 9.10.1852 - 15.7.1919)
Germany, Berlin University,
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses".
* 1903
Svante August Arrhenius (Sweden, 19.2.1859 - 2.10.1927)
Sweden, Stockholm University,
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation".
* 1904
Sir William Ramsay (Great Britain, 2.10.1852 - 23.7.1916)
Great Britain, London University,
"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system".
* 1905
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer (Germany, 31.10.1835 - 20.8.1917)
Germany, Munich University,
"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds".
* 1906
Henri Moissan (France, 28.9.1852 - 20.2.1907)
France, Sorbonne University, Paris,
"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him".
* 1907
Eduard Buchner (Germany, 20.5.1860 - 13.8.1917)
Germany, Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule, (Agricultural College), Berlin,
"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cellfree fermentation".
* 1908
Sir Ernest Rutherford (Nelson, New Zealand, 30.8.1871 - 19.10.1937)
Great Britain, Victoria University, Manchester,
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances".
* 1909
Wilhelm Ostwald (Riga, then Russia, 2.9.1853 - 4.4.1932)
Germany, Leipzig University,
"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction".
* 1910
Otto Wallach (Germany, 27.3.1847 - 26.2.1931)
Germany, Goettingen University,
"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds".
* 1911
Marie Curie, née Sklodowska (Warsaw, Poland, 7.11.1867 - 4.7.1934)
France, Sorbonne University, Paris,
"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element".
* 1912
The Prize was divided equally between:
Victor Grignard (France, 16.5.1871 - 13.12.1935)
France, Nancy University,
"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry";
and
* Paul Sabatier (France, 5.11.1854 - 14.8.1941)
France, Toulouse University,
"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years".
* 1913
Alfred Werner (Mulhouse, Alsace, then Germany, 12.12.1866 - 15.11.1919)
Switzerland, Zürich University,
"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry".
* 1914
Theodore William Richards (USA, 31.1.1868 - 2.4.1928)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements".
* 1915
Richard Martin Willstätter (Germany, 13.8.1872 - 3.8.1942)
Germany, Munich University,
"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll".
* 1916
The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
* 1917
The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
* 1918
Fritz Haber (Germany, 9.12.1868 - 29.1.1934)
Germany, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Fritz-Haber-Institut) für physikalische Chemie und Electrochemie, Berlin-Dahlem,
"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements".
* 1919
The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
* 1920
Walther Hemann Nernst (Germany, 25.6.1864 - 18.11.1941)
Germany, Berlin University,
"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry".
* 1921
Frederick Soddy (Great Britain, 2.9.1877 - 22.9.1956)
Great Britain, Oxford University,
"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes".
* 1922
Francis William Aston (Great Britain, 1.9.1877 - 20.11.1945)
Great Britain, Cambridge University,
"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule".
* 1923
Fritz Pregl (Austria, 3.9.1869 - 13.12.1930)
Austria, Graz University,
"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances".
* 1924
The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
* 1925
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (Vienna, Austria, 1.4.1865 - 29.9.1929)
Germany, Goettingen University,
"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry".
* 1926
Theodor Svedberg (Sweden, 30.8.1884 - 26.2.1971)
Sweden, Uppsala University,
"for his work on disperse systems".
* 1927
Heinrich Otto Wieland (Germany, 4.6.1877 - 5.8.1957)
Germany, Munich University,
"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances".
* 1928
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (Germany, 25.12.1876 - 9.6.1959)
Germany, Goettingen University,
"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins".
* 1929
The Prize was divided equally between:
Sir Arthur Harden (Great Britain, 12.10.1861 - 17.6.1940)
Great Britain, London University,
and
*
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (Augsburg, Germany, 15.2.1873 - 6.11.1964)
Sweden, Stockholm University,
"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes".
* 1930
Hans Fischer (Germany, 27.7.1881 - 31.3.1945)
Germany, Technische Hochschule (Institute of Technology), Munich,
"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin".
* 1931
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Carl Bosch (Germany, 27.8.1874 - 26.4.1940)
Germany, Heidelberg University and I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G., Heidelberg,
and
* Friedrich Bergius (Germany, 11.10.1884 - 30.3.1949)
Germany, Heidelberg University and I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. Mannheim-Rheinau,
"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods".
* 1932
Irving Langmuir (USA, 31.1.1881 - 16.8.1957)
USA, General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY,
"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry".
* 1933
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
* 1934
Harold Clayton Urey (USA, 29.4.1893 - 6.1.1981)
USA, Columbia University, New York, NY,
"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen".
* 1935
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Frédéric Joliot (France, 19.3.1900 - 14.8.1958)
France, Institut du Radium, Paris,
and his wife
* Irène Joliot-Curie (France, 12.9.1897 - 17.3.1956)
France, Institut du Radium, Paris,
"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements".
* 1936
Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye (Holland, 24.3.1884 - 2.11.1966)
Germany, Berlin University, and Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für Physik, Berlin-Dahlem,
"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases".
* 1937
The Prize was divided equally between:
Sir Walter Norman Haworth (Great Britain, 19.3.1883 - 19.3.1950)
Great Britain, Birmingham University,
"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C".
and
* Paul Karrer (Switzerland, 21.4.1889 - 18.6.1971)
Switzerland, Zürich University,
"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2".
* 1938
Richard Kuhn (Vienna, Austria, 3.12.1900 - 31.7.1967)
Germany, Heidelberg University and Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg,
"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins".
* 1939
The Prize was divided equally between:
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (Germany, 24.3.1903 - 18.1.1995)
Germany, Berlin University and Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für Biochemie, Berlin-Dahlem,
"for his work on sex hormones".
and
*
Leopold Ruzicka (Vukovar, then Austria-Hungary, 13.9.1887 - 26.9.1976)
Switzerland, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule, (Federal Institute of Technology), Zürich,
"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes".
* 1940
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
* 1941
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
* 1942
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
* 1943
George de Hevesy (Hungary, 1.8.1885 - 5.7.1966)
Sweden, Stockholm University,
"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes".
* 1944
Otto Hahn (Germany, 8.3.1879 - 28.7.1968)
Germany, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut, (now Max-Planck Institut) für Chemie, Berlin-Dahlem,
"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei".
* 1945
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (Finland, 15.1.1895 - 11.11.1973)
Finland, Helsinki University,
"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method".
* 1946
The Prize was divided, one half being awarded to:
James Batcheller Sumner (USA, 19.11.1887 - 12.8.1955)
USA, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY,
"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized".
the other half jointly to:
* John Howard Northrop (USA, 5.7.1891 - 27.5.1987)
USA, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, Princeton, NJ,
and
* Wendell M. Stanley (USA, 16.8.1904 - 15.6.1971)
USA, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, Princeton, NJ,
"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form".
* 1947
Sir Robert Robinson (Great Britain, 13.9.1886 - 8.2.1975)
Great Britain, Oxford University,
"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids".
* 1948
Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius (Sweden, 10.8.1902 - 29.10.1971)
Sweden, Uppsala University,
"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins".
* 1949
William Francis Giauque (USA, 12.5.1895 - 28.3.1982)
USA, University of California, Berkeley, CA,
"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures".
* 1950
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Otto Paul Hermann Diels (Germany, 23.1.1876 - 7.3.1954)
Germany, Kiel University,
and
* Kurt Alder (Germany, 10.7.1902 - 20.6.1958)
Germany, Cologne University,
"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis".
* 1951
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Edwin M. McMillan (USA, *18.9.1907 - +1991)
USA, University of California, Berkeley, CA,
and
* Glenn Theodore Seaborg (USA, *19.4.1912)
USA, University of California, Berkeley, CA,
"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements".
* 1952
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Archer John Porter Martin (Great Britain, *1.3.1910)
Great Britain, National Institute for Medical Research, London,
and
* Richard Laurence Millington Synge (Great Britain, 28.10.1914 - 18.8.1994)
Great Britain, Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn (Scotland),
"for their invention of partition chromatography".
* 1953
Hermann Staudinger (Germany, 23.3.1881 - 8.9.1965)
Germany, University of Freiburg im Breisgau and Staatliches Institut für makromolekulare Chemie (State Research Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry), Freiburg in Br.,
"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry".
* 1954
Linus Carl Pauling (USA, 28.2.1901 - 19.8.1994)
USA, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA,
"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances".
* 1955
Vincent du Vigneaud (USA, 18.5.1901 - 11.12.1978)
USA, Cornell University, New York, NY,
"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone".
* 1956
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood (Great Britain, 19.6.1897 - 9.10.1967)
Great Britain, Oxford University,
and
* Nikolai Nikolajevich Semjonow (Soviet Union, 15.4.1896 - 25.9.1986)
USSR, Institute for Chemical Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow,
"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions".
* 1957
Sir Alexander R. Todd (Great Britain, *2.7.1907)
Great Britain, Cambridge University,
"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes".
* 1958
Frederick Sanger (Great Britain, *13.8.1918)
Great Britain, Cambridge University,
"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin".
* 1959
Jaroslav Heyrovský (Czechoslovakia, 20.12.1890 - 27.3.1967)
Czechoslovakia, Polarographic Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Science, Prague,
"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis".
* 1960
Willard Frank Libby (USA, 17.12.1908 - 8.9.1980)
USA, University of California, Los Angeles, CA,
"for his method to use carbo 14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science".
* 1961
Melvin Calvin (USA, *7.4.1911 - +1997)
USA, University of California, Berkeley, CA,
"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants".
* 1962
The Prize was divided equally between:
Max Ferdinand Perutz (Vienna, Austria, *19.5.1914)
Great Britain, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge,
and
* Sir John Cowdery Kendrew (Great Britain, *24.3.1917 - +1997)
Great Britain, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge,
"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins".
* 1963 The Prize was divided equally between:
Karl Ziegler (Germany, 26.11.1898 - 11.8.1973)
Germany, Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung (Max-Planck-Institute for Carbon Research), Mülheim/Ruhr,
and
* Giulio Natta (Italy, 26.2.1903 - 2.5.1979)
Italy, Institute of Technology, Milan,
"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers".
* 1964
Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin (Great Britain, *12.5.1910 - +1994)
Great Britain, Royal Society, Oxford University, Oxford,
"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances".
* 1965
Robert Burns Woodward (USA, 10.4.1917 - 8.7.1979)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis".
* 1966
Robert S. Mulliken (USA, 7.6.1896 - 31.10.1986)
USA, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL,
"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method".
* 1967
The Prize was divided, one half being awarded to:
Manfred Eigen (Germany, *9.5.1927)
Federal Republic of Germany, Max-Planck-Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Goettingen,
and the other half jointly to:
* Ronald George Wreyford Norrish (Great Britain, 9.11.1897 - 7.6.1978)
Great Britain, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Cambridge,
and
* Lord George Porter (Great Britain, *6.12.1920)
Great Britain, The Royal Institution, London,
"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy".
* 1968
Lars Onsager (Oslo, Norway, 27.11.1903 - 5.10.1976)
USA, Yale University, New Haven, CT,
"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes".
* 1969
The Prize was divided equally between:
Sir Derek H. Barton (Great Britain, *8.9.1918)
Great Britain, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London,
and
* Odd Hassel (Norway, 17.5.1897 - 13.5.1981)
Norway, Kjemisk Institutt, Oslo University, Oslo,
"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry".
* 1970
Luis F. Leloir (Argentina, *6.9.1906 - +1987)
Argentina, Institute for Biochemical Research, Buenos Aires,
"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates".
* 1971
Gerhard Herzberg (Hamburg, Germany, *25.12.1904 - +1999)
Canada, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa,
"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic stucture and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals".
* 1972
The Prize was divided, one half being awarded to:
Christian B. Anfinsen (USA, *26.3.1916 - +1995)
USA, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD,
"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation";
and the other half jointly to:
* Stanford Moore (USA, 4.9.1913 - 23.8.1982)
USA, Rockefeller University, New York, NY,
and
* William H. Stein (USA, 25.6.1911 - 2.2.1980)
USA, Rockefeller University, New York, NY,
"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule".
* 1973
The Prize was divided equally between:
Ernst Otto Fischer (Germany, *10.11.1918)
Federal Republic of Germany, Technical University of Munich, Munich,
and
* Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson (Great Britain, *14.7.1921 - +1996)
Great Britain, Imperial College, London,
"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds".
* 1974
Paul J. Flory (USA, 19.6.1910 - 9.9.1985)
USA, Stanford University, Stanford, CA,
"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules".
* 1975
The Prize was divided equally between:
John Warcup Cornforth (Great Britain, *7.9.1917)
Great Britain, University of Sussex, Brighton,
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions";
and
* Vladimir Prelog (Sarajevo then Yugoslavia, *23.7.1906 - +1998)
Switzerland, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich,
"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions".
* 1976
William N. Lipscomb (USA, *9.12.1919)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding".
* 1977
Ilya Prigogine (Moscow, Russia, *25.1.1917)
Belgium, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussells (University of Texas, USA),
"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures".
* 1978
Peter D. Mitchell (Great Britain, 29.9.1920 - +1992)
Great Britain, Glynn Research Laboratories, Bodmin,
"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory".
* 1979
The Prize was divided equally between:
Herbert C. Brown (London, Great Britain, *22.5.1912)
USA, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN,
and
* Georg Wittig (Germany, 16.6.1897 - 26.8.1987)
Federal Republic of Germany, University of Heidelberg,
"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis".
* 1980
The Prize was divided, one half being awarded to:
Paul Berg (USA, *30.6.1926)
USA, Stanford University, Stanford, CA,
"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA";
and the other half jointly to:
* Walter Gilbert (USA, *21.3.1932)
USA, Biological Laboratories, Cambridge, MA,
and
* Frederick Sanger (Great Britain, 13.8.1918)
USA, Great Britain, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge,
"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids".
* 1981
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Kenichi Fukui (Japan, *4.10.1918 - +1998)
Japan, Kyoto University, Kyoto,
and
* Roald Hoffmann (Zloczow, Poland, *18.7.1937)
USA, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY,
"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions".
* 1982
Sir Aaron Klug (Lithuania, *11.8.1926)
Great Britain, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge,
"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes".
* 1983
Henry Taube (Saskatoon, Canada, *30.11.1915)
USA, Stanford University, Stanford, CA,
"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes".
* 1984
Robert Bruce Merrifield (USA, *15.7.1921)
USA, Rockefeller University, New York, NY,
"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix".
* 1985
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Herbert A. Hauptman (USA, 14.2.1917)
USA, The Medical Foundation of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY,
and
* Jerome Karle (USA, 18.6.1918)
USA, US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC,
"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures".
* 1986
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Dudley R. Herschbach (USA, *18.6.1932)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
* Yuan Tseh Lee (Hsinchu, Taiwan, *29.11.1936)
USA, University of California, Berkeley, CA,
and
* John C. Polanyi (Canada, *23.1.1929)
Canada, University of Toronto, Toronto,
"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes".
* 1987
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Donald J. Cram (USA, *22.4.1919)
USA, University of California, Los Angeles, CA,
* Jean-Marie Lehn (France, *30.9.1939)
France, Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, and Collège de France, Paris,
and
* Charles J. Pedersen (Fusan, Korea, as a Norwegian citizen, 3.10.1904 - 26.10.1989)
USA, Du Pont, Wilmington, DE,
"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity".
* 1988
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Johann Deisenhofer (Germany, *30.9.1943)
Federal Republic of Germany, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry,
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, TX,
* Robert Huber (Germany, *20.2.1937)
Federal Republic of Germany, Max-Planck-Institut fü Biochemie, Martinsried,
and
* Hartmut Michel (Germany, *18.7.1948)
Federal Republic of Germany, Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysik, Frankfurt/Main,
"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre".
* 1989
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Sidney Altman (Canada, *8.5.1939)
USA, Yale University, New Haven, CT,
and
* Thomas Robert Cech (USA, *8.12.1947)
USA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO,
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA".
* 1990
Elias James Corey (USA, *12.7.1928)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis".
* 1991
Richard Robert Ernst (Switzerland, *14.8.1933)
Switzerland, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich,
"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy".
* 1992
Rudolph A. Marcus (Canada, *21.7.1923)
USA, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA,
"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems".
* 1993
The Prize was awarded "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry", by one half to:
Kary Banks Mullis (USA, *1944)
USA, La Jolla, CA,
"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method",
and by the other half to:
* Michael Smith (Blackpool, England, *26.4.1932)
Canada, University of British Columbia, Vancouver,
"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleiotide- based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies".
* 1994
George A. Olah (Budapest, Hungary, *1927)
USA, University of Southern California, CA,
"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry".
* 1995
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Paul Crutzen (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, *1933)
Germany, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Mainz,
* Mario J. Molina (Mexico City, Mexico, *1943)
U.S.A, MIT, Cambridge, MA,
and
* Sherwood F. Rowland (USA, *1927)
USA, University of California, Irvine, CA,
"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone".
* 1996
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Robert F. Curl, Jr. (USA, *1933)
USA, Rice University, Houston,
* Sir Harold W. Kroto (Great Britain, *1939)
Great Britain, University of Sussex, Brighton,
and
*
Richard E. Smalley (USA, *1943)
USA, Rice University, Houston,
"for their discovery of fullerenes".
* 1997
The Prize was awarded by one half to:
Paul D. Boyer (USA, *1918)
USA, University of California, Los Angeles,
* John E. Walker (Great Britain, *1941)
Great Britain, Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge,
"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)",
and by the other half to
* Jens C. Skou (Denmark, *1918)
Denmark, Aarhus University
"the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase".
* 1998
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Walter Kohn (USA, *1923)
USA, University of California at Santa Barbara,
and
* John A. Pople (USA, *1925)
USA, Northwestern University,
"to Walter Kohn for his development of the density-functional theory and to John Pople for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry".
* 1999
Ahmed H. Zewail (Egypt, *1946)
USA, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,
"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy".

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