Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine

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This directory is compiled and maintained by Carlo Nervi and Mauro Ravera.
Feedback cheerfully accepted.
Last updated (new! or updated!): 21 January 1998


1901
Emil Adolf Von Behring (*1854, +1917)
Germany, Marburg University,
"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths".
1902
Sir Ronald Ross (*1857 in Almora, India, +1932)
Great Britain, University College, Liverpool,
"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful resesarch on this disease and methods of combating it".
1903
Niels Rydberg Finsen (*1860 in Thorshavn, Faroe Islands, +1904)
Denmark, Finsen Medical Light Institute, Copenhagen,
"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science".
1904
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, (*1849, +1936)
Russia, Military Medical Academy, St. Petersburg,
"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged".
1905
Robert Koch (*1843, +1910)
Germany, Institut für Infektions-Krankheiten (Institute for Infectious Diseases), Berlin,
"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis".
1906
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Camillo Golgi (*1843, +1926)
Italy, Pavia University,
and
Santiago Ramon Y Cajal (*1852, +1934)
Spain, Madrid University,
"in recognition of their work on the stucture of the nervous system".
1907
Charles-Louis-Alphonse Laveran (*1845, +1922)
France, Institut Pasteur, Paris,
"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases".
1908
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (*1845, +1916)
France, Institut Pasteur, Paris,
and
Paul Ehrlich (*1854, +1915)
Germany, Göttingen University and Königliches Institut für experimentelle Therapie (Royal Institute for Experimental Therapy), Frankfurt-on-the-Main,
"in recognition of their work on immunity".
1909
Emil Theodor Kocher (*1841, +1917)
Switzerland, Berne University,
"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland".
1910
Albrecht Kossel (*1853, +1927)
Germany, Heidelberg University,
"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances".
1911
Allvar Gullstrand (*1862, +1930)
Sweden, Uppsala University,
"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye".
1912
Alexis Carrel (*1873, +1944)
USA, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York, NY,
"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood-vessels and organs".
1913
Charles Robert Richet (*1850, +1935)
Paris, Sorbonne University, Paris,
"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis".
1914
Robert Bárány (*1876, +1936)
Vienna University, Austria
"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus".
1915 -
1916 -
1917 -
1918 -
1919
Jules Bordet (*1870, +1961)
Belgium, Brussels University,
"for his discoveries relating to immunity".
1920
Schack August Steenberger Krogh (*1874, +1949)
Denmark, Copenhagen University,
"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism".
1921 -
1922
The prize was divided equally between:
Sir Archibald Vivian Hill (*1886, +1977)
Great Britain, London University,
"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle";
and
Otto Fritz Meyerhof (*1884, +195)
Germany, Kiel University,
"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactid acid in the muscle".
1923
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Sir Frederick Grant Banting (*1891, +1941)
Canada, Toronto University,
and
John James Richard MacLeod (*1876 in Cluny, Scotland, +1935)
Canada, Toronto University,
"for the discovery of insulin".
1924
Willem Einthoven (*1860 in Semarang, Java, then Dutch East Indies, +1927)
the Netherlands, Leyden University,
"for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram".
1925 -
1926
Johannes Andreas Grib (*1867, +1928)
Denmark, Copenhagen University,
"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma".
1927
Julius Wagner-Jauregg (*1857, +1940)
Austria, Vienna University,
"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica".
1928
Charles Jules Henri Nicolle (*1866, +1936)
France, Institut Pasteur, Tunis,
"for his work on typhus".
1929
The prize was divided equally between:
Christiaan Eijkman (*1858, +1930)
the Netherlands, Utrecht University,
"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin";
and
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (*1861, +1947)
Great Britain, Cambridge University,
"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins".
1930
Karl Landsteiner (*1868, +1943)
USA, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York, NY,
"for his discovery of human blood groups".
1931
Otto Heinrich Warburgh (*1883, +1970)
Germany, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für Biologie, Berlin-Dahlem,
"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme".
1932
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (*1857, +1952)
Great Britain, Oxford University,
and
Lord Edgar Douglas Adrian (*1889, +1977)
Great Britain, Cambridge University,
"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons".
1933
Thomas Hunt Morgan (*1866, +1945)
USA, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA,
"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity".
1934
The prize was awarded jointly to:
George Hoyt Whipple (*1878, +1976)
USA, Rochester University, Rochester, NY,
George Richards Minot (*1885, +1950)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
and
William Parry Murphy (*1892, +1987)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, and Peter Brent Brigham Hospital, Boston, MA,
"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia".
1935
Hans Spemann (*1869, +1941)
Germany, University of Freiburg im Breisgau,
"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development".
1936
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Sir Henry Hallett Dale (*1875, +1968)
Great Britain, National Institute for Medical Research, London,
and
Otto Loewi (*1873 in Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Germany, +1961)
Austria, Graz University,
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses".
1937
Albert Szent-Györgyi Von Nagyrapolt (*1893, +1986)
Hungary, Szeged University,
"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid".
1938
Corneille Jean François Heymans (*1892, +1968)
Belgium, Ghent University,
"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration".
1939
Gerhard Domagk (*1895, +1964)
Germany, Munster University,
"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil".
1940 -
1941 -
1942 -
1943
The prize was divided equally between:
Henrik Carl Peter Dam (*1895, +1976)
Denmark, Polytechnic Institute, Copenhagen,
"for his discovery of vitamin K";
and
Edward Adelbert Doisy (*1893, +1986)
USA, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO,
"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K".
1944
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Joseph Erlanger (*1874, +1965)
USA, Washington University, St. Louis, MO,
and
Herbert Spencer Gasser (*1888, +1963)
USA, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York, NY,
"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres".
1945
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Sir Alexander Fleming (*1881 in Lochfield, Scotland, +1955)
Great Britain, London University,
Sir Ernst Boris Chain (*1906 in Berlin, Germany, +1979)
Great Britain, Oxford University,
and
Lord Howard Walter Florey (*1898 in Adelaide, Australia, +1968)
Great Britain, Oxford University,
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases".
1946
Hermann Joseph Muller (*1890, +1967)
USA, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN,
"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation".
1947
The prize was divided, one half being awarded jointly to:
Carl Ferdinand Cori (*1896 in Prague, then Austria, +1984)
USA, Washington University, St. Louis, MO,
and his wife
Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz (*1896 in Prague, then Austria, +1957)
USA, Washington University, St. Louis, MO,
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen";
the other half being awarded to:
Bernardo Alberto Houssay (Argentina, *1887, +1971)
Argentina, Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental (Institute for Biology and Experimental Medicine), Buenos Aires,
"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar".
1948
Paul Hermann Müller (*1899, +1965)
Switzerland, Laboratorium der Farben-Fabriken J.R. Geigy A.G. (Laboratory of the J.R. Geigy Dye-Factory Co.), Basel,
"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods".
1949
The prize was divided equally between:
Walter Rudolf Hess (*1881, +1973)
Switzerland, Zürich University,
"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs";
and
Antonio Caetano De Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (*1874, +1955)
Portugal, University of Lisbon, Neurological Institute, Lisbon,
"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses".
1950
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Edward Calvin Kendall (*1886, +1972)
USA, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN,
Tadeus Reichstein (*1897 in Wloclawek, Poland)
Switzerland, Basel University,
and
Philip Showalter Hench (*1896, +1965)
USA, Mayo Clinic, Rochester ,MN,
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects".
1951
Max Theiler (*1899, +1972)
Union of South Africa, Laboratories Division of Medicine and Public Health, Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY, USA,
"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it".
1952
Selman Abraham Waksman (*1888 in Priluka, Ukraine, Russia, +1973)
USA, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ,
"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis".
1953
The prize was divided equally between:
Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (*1900 in Hildesheim, Germany, +1981)
Great Britain, Sheffield University,
"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle";
and
Fritz Albert Lipmann (*1899 in Koenigsberg, then Germany, +1986)
USA, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA,
"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism".
1954
The prize was awarded jointly to:
John Franklin Enders (*1897, +1985)
USA, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA,; Research Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Medical Center, Boston, MA,
Thomas Huckle Weller (*1915)
USA, Research Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Medical Center, Boston, MA,
and
Frederick Chapman Robbins (*1916)
USA, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH,
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue".
1955
Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell (*1903, +1982)
Sweden, Nobel Medical Institute, Stockholm,
"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes".
1956
The prize was awarded jointly to:
André Frédéric Cournand (*1895 in Paris, France, +1988)
USA, Cardio-Pulmonary Laboratory, Columbia University Division, Bellevue Hospital, New York, NY,
Werner Forssmann (*1904, +1979)
Germany, Mainz University and Bad Kreuznach,
and
Dickinson W. Richards (*1895, +1973)
USA, Columbia University, New York, NY,
"for their discoveries concerning heart catherization and pathological changes in the circulatory system".
1957
Daniel Bovet (*1907 in Neuchatel, Switzerland, +1992)
Italy, Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Chief Institute of Public Health), Rome,
"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles".
1958
The prize was divided, one half being awarded jointly to:
George Wells Beadle (*1903, +198)
USA, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA,
and
Edward Lawrie Tatum (*1909, +1975)
USA, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York, NY,
"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events";
and the other half to:
Joshua Lederberg (*1925)
USA, Wisconsin University, Madison, WI,
"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria".
1959
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Severo Ochoa (*1905 in Luarca, Spain, +1993)
USA, New York University, College of Medicine, New York, NY,
and
Arthur Kornberg (*1918)
USA, Stanford University, Stanford, CA,
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxiribonucleic acid".
1960
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet (*1899, +1985)
Australia, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research, Melbourne,
and
Sir Peter Brian Medawar (*1915, +1987)
Great Britain, University College, London,
"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance".
1961
Georg Von Békéy (*1899 in Budapest, Hungary, +1972)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea".
1962
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Francis Harry Compton Crick (*1916)
Great Britain, Institute of Molecular Biology, Cambridge,
James Dewey Watson (*1928)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
and
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (*1916)
Great Britain, University of London,
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nuclear acids and its significance for information transfer in living material".
1963
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Sir John Carew Eccles (*1903)
Australia, Australian National University, Canberra,
Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (*1914)
Great Britain, Cambridge University, Cambridge,
and
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (*1917)
Great Britain, London University,
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane".
1964
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Konrad Bloch (*1912 in Neisse, Germany)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
and
Feodor Lynen (*1911, +1979)
Germany, Max-Planck-Institut für Zellchemie, Munich,
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism".
1965
The prize was awarded jointly to:
François Jacob (*1920)
France, Institut Pasteur, Paris,
André Lwoff (*1902, +1994)
France, Institut Pasteur, Paris,
and
Jacques Monod (*1910, +1976)
France, Institut Pasteur, Paris,
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis".
1966
The prize was divided equally between:
Peyton Rous (*1879, +1970)
USA, Rockefeller University, New York, NY,
"for his discovery of tumor inducing viruses";
and
Charles Brenton Huggins (*1901)
USA, Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL,
"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer".
1967
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Ragnar Granit (*1900 in Helsinki, Finland, +1991)
Sweden, The Karolinska Institute, Stockholm,
Haldan Keffer Hartline (*1903, +1983)
USA, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY,
and
George Wald (*1906)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye".
1968
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Robert W. Holley (*1922)
USA, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY,
Har Gobind Khorana (*1922 in Raipur, India)
USA, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI,
and
Marshall W. Nirenberg (*1927)
USA, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD,
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis".
1969
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Max Delbrück (*1906 in Berlin, Germany, +1981)
USA, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA,
Alfred D. Hershey (*1908)
USA, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Long Island, New York, NY,
and
Salvador E. Luria (*1912, in Torino, Italy, +1991)
USA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA,
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses".
1970
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Sir Bernard Katz (*1911)
Great Britain, University College, London,
Ulf Von Euler (*1905, +1983)
Sweden, The Karolinska Institute, Stockholm,
and
Julius Axelrod (*1912)
USA, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD,
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation".
1971
Earl W. Sutherland Jr. (*1915, +1974)
USA, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN,
"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones".
1972
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Gerald M. Edelman (*1929)
USA, Rockefeller University, New York, NY,
and
Rodney R. Porter (*1917, +1985)
Great Britain, University of Oxford,
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies".
1973
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Karl Von Frisch (*1886 in Vienna, Austria, +1982)
Federal Republic of Germany, Zoologisches Institut der Universität München, Munich,
Konrad Lorenz (*1903, +1989)
Austria, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für vergleichende Verhaltensforschung, Altenberg,
and
Nikolaas Tinbergen (*1907 in the Hague, the Netherlands, +1988)
Great Britain, Department of Zoology, University Museum, Oxford,
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns".
1974
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Albert Claude (*1899, +1983)
Belgium, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain,
Christian De Duve (*1917)
Belgium, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY,
and
George E. Palade (*1912 in Iasi, Roumania)
USA, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT,
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell".
1975
The prize was awarded jointly to:
David Baltimore (*1938)
USA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA,
Renato Dulbecco (*1914 in Catanzaro, Italy)
USA, Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratory, London,
and
Howard Martin Temin (*1934, +1994)
USA, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI,
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell".
1976
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Baruch S. Blumberg (*1925)
USA, The Institute for Cancer Research, Philadelphia, PA,
and
D. Carleton Gajdusek (*1923)
USA, National Institutesof Health, Bethesda, MD,
"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases".
1977
The prize was divided, one half being awarded jointly to:
Roger Guillemin (*1924 in Dijon, France)
USA, The Salk Institute, San Diego, CA,
and
Andrew W. Schally (*1926 in Wilno, Poland)
USA, Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans, LA,
"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain";
and the other half being awarded to:
Rosalyn Yalow (*1921)
USA, Veterans Administration Hospital, Bronx, NY,
"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones".
1978
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Werner Arber (*1929)
Switzerland, Biozentrum der Universität, Basel,
Daniel Nathans (*1928)
USA, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD,
and
Hamilton O. Smith (*1931)
USA, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD,
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics".
1979
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Alan M. Cormack (*1924 in Johannesburg, South Africa)
USA, Tufts University, Medford, MA,
and
Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield (*1919)
Great Britain, Central Research Laboratories, EMI, London,
"for the development of computer assisted tomography".
1980
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Baruj Benacerraf (*1920 in Caracas, Venezuela)
USA, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA,
Jean Dausset (*1916)
France, Université de Paris, Laboratoire Immuno-Haematologie, Paris,
and
George D. Snell (*1903)
USA, Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME,
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions".
1981
The prize was awarded by one half to:
Roger W. Sperry (*1913, +1994)
USA, California Institute ofTechnology, Pasadena, CA,
"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres".
and the other half jointly to:
David H. Hubel (*1926 in Canada)
USA, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA,
and
Torsten N. Wiesel (*1924)
Sweden, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA,
"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system".
1982
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Sune K. Bergström (*1916)
Sweden, The Karolinska Institute, Stockholm,
Bengt I. Samuelsson (*1934)
Sweden, The Karolinska Institute, Stockholm,
and
Sir John R. Vane (*1927)
Great Britain, The Wellcome Research Laboratories, Beckenham,
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances".
1983
Barbara McClintock (*1902, +1992)
USA, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY,
"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements".
1984
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Niels K. Jerne (*1911, +1994)
Denmark, Basel Institute for Immunology, Basel, Switzerland,
Georges J. F. Köhler (*1946, +1995)
Federal Republic of Germany, Basel Institute for Immunology, Basel, Switzerland,
and
César Milstein (*1927 in Bahia Blanca, Argentina)
Great Britain and Argentina, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge,
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies".
1985
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Michael S. Brown (*1941)
USA, University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX,
and
Joseph L. Goldstein (*1940)
USA, University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX,
"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism".
1986
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Stanley Cohen (*1922)
USA, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN,
and
Rita Levi Montalcini (*1909 in Torino, Italy)
Italy and USA, Institute of Cell Biology of the C.N.R., Rome, Italy,
"for their discoveries of growth factors".
1987
Susumu Tonegawa (*1939)
Japan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA,
"for his discovery of the 'genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity'".
1988
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Sir James W. Black (*1924)
Great Britain, King's College Hospital Medical School, University of London, London
Gertrude B. Elion (*1918)
USA, Wellcome Research Laboratories, Research Triangle Park, NC,
and
George H. Hitchings (*1905)
USA, Wellcome Research Laboratories, Research Triangle Park, NC,
"for their discoveries of 'important principles for drug treatment'".
1989
The prize was awarded jointly to:
J. Michael Bishop (*1936)
USA, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA,
and
Harold E. Varmus (*1939)
USA, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA,
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes".
1990
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Joseph E. Murray (*1919)
USA, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA,
and
E. Donnall Thomas (*1920)
USA, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA,
"for their discoveries concerning 'Organ and Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Human Disease'".
1991
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Erwin Neher (*1944)
Germany, Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysikalische Chemie, Göttingen,
and
Bert Sakmann (*1942)
Germany, Max-Planck-Institut für Medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg,
"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells".
1992
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Edmond H. Fischer (*1920 in Shanghai, China)
USA, University of Washington, Seattle, WA,
and
Edwin G. Krebs (*1918)
USA, University of Washington, Seattle, WA,
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism".
1993
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Richards J. Roberts (*1943)
England, New England Biolabs, Beverly, MA, USA,
and
Phillip A. Sharp (*1944)
USA, Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA,
"for their discoveries of split genes".
1994
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Alfred G. Gilman (*1941)
U.S.A, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX,
and
Martin Rodbell (*1925)
USA, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC,
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells".
1995
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Edward B. Lewis (*1918)
USA, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA,
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (*1942)
Germany, Max-Planck-Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie, Tübingen,
and
Eric F. Wieschaus (*1947)
USA, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ,
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development".
1996
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Peter C. Doherty (Australia, *1940)
Rolf M. Zinkernagel (Switzerland, *1944)
Australia, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Canberra,
"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence".
1997
The prize was awarded to:
Stanley B. Prusiner (USA, *1942)
USA, University of California, San Francisco, CA,
"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection".
1998
The prize was awarded jointly to:
Robert F. Furchgott (USA, *1916)
USA, SUNY Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY
Louis J. Ignarro (USA, *1941)
USA, UCLA School of Medicine
Ferid Murad (USA, *1966)
USA, University of Texas Medical School at Houston
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system".
1999
GŁnter Blobel (USA, *1936)
USA, The Rockefeller University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, NY
"proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell".
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